Woodworking Machines-Types And Their Uses
Woodworking machines are those machines used in woodwork to cut ,plane,drill holes and shape items. Woodworking machines can also be used to hold pieces of wood together in the process of making woodwork items.
TYPES OF WOODWORKING MACHINES
The band saw is a machine used to cut curves and straight lines in thick and thin pieces of wood. In using the band saw,the wood to be cut is brought down on a table,in order to make contact with the teeth of the blade as it resolves.The required size is measured from the blade to the table.The band saw has relieved woodworkers of the burden of slicing timber manually.
steps in using the band saw
- Make sure the machine comes to a complete stop
- Set the top blade guide so that it clears the work
- Turn on the switch holding the work in both hands and feed slowly into the teeth
- Cut near the marked line using enough pressure to keep the blade cutting
parts of a band saw
The band saw has many functional parts.The saw has two pulleys and an endless saw blade,toothed on one edge in the form of band.The two pulleys,upper and lower are usually covered by access doors. The bottom pulley is stationary,while the top pulley can be adjusted and aligned with the bottom pulley.The top pulley can move up and down to enable the saw blade to fit into position.The bottom pulley drives the top one then the band saw table holds the wood to be sawn .This table can be moved manually or by the rack and pinion and the index guide. It is held in position with bolts and nuts.
the saw guide
This gives support to the body of the blade.The guide must be set to steady the saw as near as possible to the front edge of the blade and also the edge of the guides should support the width of the blade and leave the teeth free.The top guide is provided with a wheel,which takes the thrust of the saw under sawing condition.
The surface planing machine is used for removing marks and twists on the face of the wood,it also helps to produce flat surfaces and straight edges.The machine is also used for rebating,chamfering,bevelling,tapering and tenoning.
The thicknesser is a woodwork machine used for planning to a specific thickness.It is similar to the surface planer and it is used to produce correct thickness by setting the cutter to the desired size.The wood passes between the two cutters and these cutters are adjusted to the desired size in order to give the correct thickness after cutting.
Cutter blocks of the thicknesser are usually circular,with provision for two or four blades.They are attached with feed rollers or pressure bars.The feed table is fitted with two anti-friction rollers,which control the feed speed of the work piece.The front table is pulled backwards from the cutter block,to allow the wood chips fly out.
The circular saw is used to prepare or resaw timber into suitable sizes for articles of joinery,furniture and some other items made of wood.This machine has a table resting on a column and the revolving knife protrudes above the table.The saw has an iron fence on one side of the table which allows the wood to slide as the saw cuts along the line which is marked on the wood.
The drill press is used to drill holes in wood,and it can as well used to carry out other operations like mortising,shaping,sanding and boring.Drill press has four main parts;they are:the head,the column,the table and the base.
The head of the drill press consist of a spindle;which rotates in a vertical position and is enclosed in ball bearings at both ends in a quill.The feed lever operates the quill and the spindle by a downward feed.The speeds of the rotating spindle can be adjusted on the cone pulleys on the drill press.The drill press sizes are determined by the distance from the boring point to the column.This is usually the radius of the largest stock that can be held while boring through the centre.
Wood lathe is used for turning wood.There are two common methods of turning wood in wood lathe;they are:
- Turning between centres
- Turning on the face plate both inside and outside
Some major parts of the lathe machine include:the head stock,the tool rest,live and tail stock centres.Followed by the face plates,steady rest and turning tool.
the head stock:
This part of the lathe holds the face plates and various chucks.
the face plates:
Each of these is screwed into the head stock main spindle;for inside and outside turning.
live and tail centres:
The work piece to be turned is gripped between the centres then a revolving centre is fitted in the tail stock which eliminates lubricating the centre and burning of work piece.
the tool rest:
This is held down by a threaded screw which moves forward and backward in any position.
This reduces vibration of material being turned,especially where long lengths are turned between centres.
There are so many turning tools,some of them includes:skew chisel,round nose scraper chisel,gauge,parting tool,hook chisel,diamond point chisel,calipers(inside and outside),side chisel.