What Is The Recommended Daily Normal Dietary Requirements
Normal dietary requirements must contain adequate diet with their correct proportion which are necessary to maintain good health. The following are the normal dietary requirement:
- Mineral salts
Carbohydrate food are made up of hydrogen,carbon and oxygen. Having hydrogen and oxygen of the same proportion as in water. Talking about carbohydrates, Starches and Sugars are carbohydrates which originated from vegetable.
These carbohydrate foods are classified into the following:
- POLYSACCHARIDES: This class of carbohydrate are known to be complicated chemical compounds which require an amount of break down of food into their simplest form such as glucose,before being absorbed. This class of carbohydrate are starches. Examples are Bread, Cereals, Yams, Rice, Root vegetables.
- DISACCHARIDES: In this class, they are less complicated compounds and require less break down of food before absorption. Examples are sugar cane, milk sugar, beet sugar.
- MONOSACCHARIDES: These are the simplest carbohydrates, where the above two classes have to be reduced before they can be absorbed into the body. An example is Glucose.
Fatty foods are made up of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen but the oxygen and hydrogen are not on the same proportion that is the water.
These fats are divided into two groups which are the Animal and Vegetable fats.
Animal fats: Animal fats can be gotten from the following diary produce; butter, eggs, milk, sardine, halibut,meat.
Vegetable fats: Vegetable fats can be gotten from nuts like coconut,groundnut and also in margarine and palm oil where vitamin A and D can be found.
fats functions in the body
- To support the kidney.
- To transport fat-soluble vitamins like Vitamin A,D,E,K round the body.
- To produce heat and energy
- Fats are necessary for secretions of the sebaceous glands,cholesterol in the bile and nerve sheaths.
Protein foods are made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen. Protein is known as a nitrogenous food because of the nitrogen content in it.
It is divided into two main classes and they are:
- First class protein
- Second class protein
First class protein is the type of protein that contains all the essential amino acids. Example are:
Coming to Essential amino acids, they must be added in the diet because they cannot be synthesised within the body. But the Non-essential amino acids are those which can be synthesised within the body.
Second class protein does not contain all the essential amino acids. Examples are Maize, Peas(beans), Lentils(melon seeds).
functions of protein in the body
- To maintain the osmotic equilibrium between the blood and the tissue fluid
- To replace worn and damaged cells
- To supply the essential amino-acids for cell formation necessary for growth.
- To produce heat and energy only when there is an insufficiency of carbohydrate and fat in the diet.
Vitamins are essential and they also play a major role in the formation enzymes within the body.
Vitamins are classified into :
- fat-soluble vitamins(A,D,E and K)
- water-soluble vitamins(B complex, C and P)
Mineral salts are important in the body for good health. There are different types of mineral salts; they are: Iron, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium, Iodine, Sodium, Phosphorus. Mineral salts can be found in most foods like Cheese, Vegetables, Fruit.
functions of the mineral salts in the body
- They are essential for all tissue cells
- They are necessary for maintenance of fluid balance
- For the satisfactory secretion of digestive juices like the succus entericus and gastric juice.
- They are essential for healthy nerves and also for blood clotting.
- They are important for the development and growth of the bone and teeth.
- Essential for the effective function of the thyroid gland, parathyroid and adrenal (endocrine glands).
Water is a liquid substance that comprise of hydrogen(2 molecules) and oxygen(1). It is very important for life.
functions of water in the body
- It is necessary for the formation of food and urine
- It is very important for all the cells to function
- It is very important for the transportation of water soluble vitamins
- It is important for transportation of antibodies and hormones to every part of the body
- It also assist in the regulation of the body’s temperature through sweating.