What Are The Methods Of Collecting A Urine Specimen.
As they say health is wealth, whenever you feel sick, make sure that you attend to your body first before any other thing. There are different methods of collecting a urine specimen; These specimens are required for examination as an aid to diagnosis and a guide to treatment. The ones that have to do with the student nurses are:
But here, we will be discussing about the methods in which you can use to collect Urine specimen. The following below are important things which you need to bear in mind when any type of specimen is being collected. They are:
1. The specimen should be collected without contamination from outside.
2. The part from which the specimen is obtained should be as free contamination as possible.
3. A sufficient quantity in the appropriate container should be collected.
4. If the specimen is for bacteriological examination, the container into which it is placed must be sterile, you can do this by boiling or autoclaving. Chemical disinfectants must never be used for this purpose.
5. The specimen should be sent to the laboratory immediately or in routing collecting time. Specimens which are being sent to the laboratory to find out if a disease like gonococcus is present must go immediately as this organism dies quickly outside the body.
6. Any specimen kept in the ward for inspection by the nurse in charge or the doctor must be kept covered to prevent flies and other insects from gaining access to it. A tight fitting lid or a towel soaked in antiseptic then wrung out should be used.
7. The specimen must be sent to the laboratory accompanied by the appropriate requisition form and clearly labelled with the following details:
- The name and date of birth of the patient.
- The ward and patient’s case number.
- The quantity and nature of the specimen.
- The date and time of taking the specimen.
If the specimen is being sent away from the hospital, the label should have the name and address of the hospital on it.
SPECIMEN OF URINE
A specimen of urine is collected as a routine measure from all new patients and from all patients who are to be operated on under general anaesthetic. Abnormalities like sugar being found in the urine may influence the choice of anaesthetic.
The urine specimen glass should be labelled in such a way that it can be read while holding the glass ready to pour urine from it into a test tube for testing.
Daily specimens of urine are requested by the doctor in some cases like diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, jaundice and in some heart diseases.
Method Of Collection
For a woman, she should be given a bedpan which has just been removed from the sterilizer and also be instructed not to pass a stool at the same time and that it is only a specimen of urine that is required. When the bedpan has been used, it should be taken to the sluice room. The specimen may be poured directly from the bedpan into the specimen glass or it may be poured into a jug and then into the labelled specimen glass. If the specimen is required from a male patient, a boiled urinal is used instead of a bedpan.
Twenty-Four Hour Specimen Of Urine
All the urine passed in a stated twenty-four hour period is collected. The patient should be asked not to pass urine and faeces into the same bedpan. The bladder should be emptied using one into the same bedpan and another one given if the patient wishes to defaecate.
Method Of Collecting A Twenty-Four Hour Specimen
1. A container usually in winchester bottle should be labelled with the patient’s name and set aside.
2. A suitable period is decided upon. For example; 8 A.M till 8 A.M the next day.
3. At 8 A.M the first day, the patient is asked to pass urine and the specimen is discarded.
4. From then till 8 A.M the following day, all urine passed is put into the winchester bottle including the 8 A.M specimen.
5. The total amount passed may be sent to the laboratory or the contents of the winchester bottle stirred with a specimen taken. The specimen must be adequately labelled and sent to the laboratory accompanied by the appropriate requisition form. In hot weather, toluol may be added to the urine to prevent its decomposition.
HOW TO OBTAIN A SPECIMEN OF URINE FROM A BABY BOY
A test tube may be fixed to the penis with adhesive tape then held in position by attaching it to the thigh with tape.
METHOD OF COLLECTING SPECIMEN OF URINE FROM A BABY GIRL
There are three methods that you can use to collect the specimen from a baby girl. They are:
1. A disposable plastic bag with an adhesive attachment is used for children that are too small or too ill to co-operate. The protective covering is taken off the adhesive area which is then applied over the vulva with the small opening on it and directly opposite the urethra. Urine will pass from the urethra into the collecting bag. Then the bag containing the specimen is detached and the specimen poured into a urine glass for testing in the ward laboratory or it may be poured into a sterile test tube to be sent to the bacteriologic laboratory for examination.
2. You should observe the usual time of passing urine. For example; after a feed, place her on a small bedpan to obtain the specimen.
3. Place a piece of sterile cotton wool over the vulva and cover it with a jaconet. After the baby has passed urine, take the cotton wool in two pairs of forceps and wring it into a specimen glass.
HOW TO COLLECT A SPECIMEN OF URINE FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
Before carrying out the procedure, all the equipment must be sterilised as an aseptic technique must be used throughout.
The specimen is acquired by passing a sterile catheter into the bladder and the urine is received into a container which has been sterilised by boiling or using autoclave machine.
A mid-stream specimen of urine from a patient is sometimes requested for microbiological examination. else the doctor or male student will catheterise a male patient.
To collect a mid-stream specimen, the patient is given a urinal or bedpan and asked to begin micturating. During micturition, a sterile specimen glass or receiver is substituted and the specimen is collected.
It is usually necessary to send the labelled specimen to the laboratory right away with the appropriate requisition form.