The energy requirements of individuals and the energy values of foods in the diet are measured in calories or joules.
ONE CALORIE = The amount of heat used when one litre of water is heated through one centigrade degree.
ONE JOULE = The amount of energy used when a force of one newton moves a mass of one kilogram to one metre. The nutritional values are are expressed in kilojoules (kj).
one kilojoules (1kj) = one thousand(1000) joules.
one calorie(1 calorie) = four thousand one hundred and eighty four(4184) joules = 4.184 kilojoules.
one gram of protein yields 17 kilojoules (4 calories).
one gram of carbohydrate yields 17 kilojoules (4 calories).
one gram of fat yields 38 kilojoules (9 calories).
FOODS AND THEIR ENERGY VALUES
100 GRAMS OF MAIZE : This has an approximate energy value of 1400 kj and 335 calories.
100 GRAMS OF GARRI : This has an approximate energy value of 1400 kj and 335 calories.
100 GRAMS OF RIPE PLANTAIN : 540 kj and 130 calories.
100 GRAMS OF MELON SEEDS : 2300 kj and 550 calories.
100 GRAMS OF OKRA : 150 kj and 36 calories.
100 GRAMS OF AVOCADO PEAR : 500 kj and 120 calories.
100 GRAMS OF CHICKEN : 500 kj and 120 calories.
100 GRAMS OF TERMITES : 2600 kj and 620 calories.
100 GRAMS OF HERRING : 684 KJ and 163 calories.
100 GRAMS OF COWS’ MILK : 300 kj and 72 calories.
100 GRAMS OF PALM OIL : 3600 kj and 860 calories.
In health, the daily requirements of the individual varies with the climate, age, sex, work. Then in diseases, not only the calorific requirements are considered but also all individual food factors. The physician instructions could be that several of these foods intake are either increased or decreased.
The average daily requirements for a woman are 10,000 kj (2400 calories) per day.
The average daily requirements for a man are 12,500 kj (3000 calories) per day.
These figures vary according to the physical work being carried out. For example, a male at bed rest requires 7300 kj (1750 calories) per day, but a male at very active work, for example, a miner requires 14600 kj to 16700 kj (3500 to 4000 calories) per day.
Calorific requirements are split up into the main food factors, for example, a 10,000 kj (2400 calories) diet would contain :
PROTEINS : 10 to 15 percent of the total =1000 kj (240 calories) = 60 g
CARBOHYDRATES : 50 to 55 percent of the total = 5500 kj (1320 calories) =330 g
FAT : 33 percent of the total =3350 kj (800 calories) = 89g