Malnutrition And Anemia-Vitamins,Minerals,Medicines For Treatment.
Malnutrition and anemia is mostly common in children below five years old and also women who are of age to give birth. This is being caused by nutritional deficiency.
There are different types of vitamins, minerals and medicines that can be used to correct or treat this health problem or condition. They are :
POWDERED MILK (Dried milk)
For babies, mother’s milk is best. It is rich in body building vitamins and minerals. When breast milk is not available, other milk products including powdered milk can be used. To allow a baby to make full use of its food value, mix the powdered milk with some sugar and cooking oil.
In 1 cup of boiled water, put :
- 12 level teaspoons of powdered milk
- 2 level teaspoons of sugar
- 3 teaspoons of oil
MIXED (Multi) VITAMINS
These comes in many forms but tablets are usually cheapest and work well. Injections of vitamins are rarely necessary and are a waste of money. It causes unnecessary pains and sometimes abscesses. Tonics and elixirs often do not have the most important vitamins and are usually too expensive for the good they do.
Nutritious food is the best source of vitamins. If additional vitamins are needed, use vitamin tablets. In some cases of poor nutrition, added vitamins may help. Be sure the tablets used contains the important vitamins the person needs.
VITAMIN A (Retinol)
This is used for night blindness and xerophthalmia. It often comes as capsules of 200,000 units, 60 mg of retinol (also in smaller dose), injections of 100,000 units.
WARNING : Too much vitamin A can cause fits (convulsions). Do not give too much and keep out of the reach of children.
In areas where night blindness and xerophthalmia are common problems in children, they should eat more yellow fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy foods as well as animal foods such as eggs and liver. Fish liver oil is high in vitamin A or vitamin A capsules can be given. Give 1 capsule once every 4 to 6 months
Mothers can help prevent these eye problems in their babies by taking 1 vitamin A capsule (200,000 units) by mouth when their baby is born or within 1 month after given birth. Children with measles are at high risk of xerophthalmia and should be given vitamin A when the illness begins.
In areas where children do not get enough vitamin A, added foods or capsules with vitamin A often help children survive measles and other serious illnesses.
Give 1 vitamin A capsule (200,000 units) by mouth or an injection of 100,000 units. The next day, give 1 vitamin A capsule (200,000 units) by mouth and another capsule 1 to 2 weeks later.
For children less than 1 year old, reduce all doses by one-half.
IRON SULFATE (Ferrous sulfate)
This is used for anemia, it often comes in tablets of 200, 300 or 500 mg. It also comes in drops, mixtures and elixirs for children.
Ferrous sulfate is useful in the treatment or prevention of most anemias. Treatment with ferrous sulfate by mouth usually takes at least 3 months. If improvement does not take place, the anemia is probably caused by something other than lack of iron.
Get medical help. If this is difficult, try treating with folic acid.
Ferrous sulfate is especially important for pregnant women who may be anemic or malnourished.
Iron may work best if it is taken with some vitamin vitamin C (either fruits and vegetables or a vitamin C tablet)
Ferrous sulfate sometimes upsets the stomach and is best taken with meals. Also it can cause constipation and it may make the stools look black. For children under 3 years old, a piece of a tablet can be ground up very fine and mixed with the food.
WARNING : Be sure the dose is right. Too much ferrous sulfate is poisonous. Keep tablets out of the reach of children. Do not give ferrous sulfate to severely malnourished persons.
Dosage of ferrous sulfate for anemia
Using tablets of 200 mg, Give 3 times a day with meals. In each dose, give :
- Adults : 200 to 400 mg (1 or 2 tablets)
- Children over 6 years old : 200 mg (1 tablet)
- Children between 3 to 6 years old : 100 mg (1/2 tablet)
- Children under 3 years old : 25 to 50 mg (1/8 to 1/4 tablet) ground up fine and mixed with food.
This is used for some kinds of anemia, it often comes in tablets of 5 mg. Folic acid can be important in the treatment of kinds of anemia in which blood cells have been destroyed in the veins, as is the case with malaria.
An anemic person who has a large spleen or looks yellow may need folic acid especially if his or her anemia does not get much better with ferrous sulfate. Babies who are fed goat’s milk and pregnant women who are anemic or malnourished often need folic acid as well as iron.
Folic acid can be obtained by eating dark green leafy foods, meat and liver or by taking folic acid tablets. Usually 2 weeks treatment is enough for children, although in some areas, children with sickle cell diseases or a kind of anemia called thalassemia may need it for years.
Pregnant women who are anemic and malnourished would be helped by taking folic acid and iron tablets daily throughout pregnancy.
Dosage of folic acid for anemia
Using 5 mg tablets, give by mouth once a day
- Adults and children over 3 years old : 1 tablet (5 mg)
- Children under 3 years old : 1/2 tablet (Two and half mg)
VITAMIN B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
This is used for pernicious anemia only. This is mentioned to discourage its use. Vitamin B12 is useful only for a rare type of anemia that is almost never found except in some persons over 35 years old whose ancestors are from Northern Europe.
Many doctors prescribe it when it is not needed, just to make sure they give their patients something. Do not allow a doctor or health worker give you vitamin B12 unless a blood analysis has been done and it has been shown that you have pernicious anemia.
VITAMIN K (Phytomenadione, Phytonadione)
This vitamin often comes in ampules of 1 mg in 2.5 ml of milky solution. If a newborn child begins to bleed from any part of his body (mouth, cord, anus), this may be caused by lack of vitamin K. Inject 1 mg (1 ampule) of vitamin K into the outer part of the thigh.
Do not inject more, even if the bleeding continues. In babies who are born very small (under 2 kg) an injection of vitamin K may be given to reduce the risk of bleeding.
Vitamin K is of no use to control bleeding of the mother after childbirth.
VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)
This often comes in 25 mg tablets. Persons with tuberculosis being treated with isoniazid sometimes develop a lack of vitamin B6. To prevent this, 50 mg of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) may be taken daily while taking isoniazid.
Or the vitamin can be given only to persons who develop problems because of its lack. The signs include pain or tingling in the hands or feet, muscle twitching, nervousness and being unable to sleep.
Dosage of vitamin B6
While taking isoniazid, take two 25 mg tablets daily.