How To Dispose And Disinfect Urine,Stool,Sputum,Vomitus Specimens.
Below, we will be discussing on how we can be able to dispose and at the same time disinfect the urine, stool, sputum and vomitus specimens.
Lets start from urine
Urine that contains pathogenic micro-organisms requires to receive special attention before being disposed off by the ordinary sewage system. Such diseases includes: typhoid fever, cystitis, pyelitis (inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney) and tuberculosis of the kidney.
The urine should be placed in a special container and mixed with the disinfectant supplied to the ward. The prescribed strength of lotion and length of exposure to the disinfectant should be used. If in doubt, the attention of the nurse in-charge should be called. The time of exposure should not be less than four hours. After disinfection is completed, the urine and the disinfectant can be sluiced away.
In situations where radioactive isotopes are used in the treatment of the patient, they are excreted in the urine that is still in their active state. In the interests of the public, the disposal of such urine is controlled and only a certain amount must be disposed off into the public sewers in each day. Any excess of this amount is retained in the ward, hospital or in special containers until a sufficient space of time has elapsed to allow the radioactivity to be reduced to safe limits. Thereafter, the urine is disposed off in the usual way.
Note that after a specimen of urine has been examined in the ward, it is disposed off as described above; but if it contains no radioactive materials or micro-organisms, it can be emptied into the sluice without further treatment. If the urine is infected, the specimen glass must be sterilized by boiling and then very thoroughly cleaned. It can also be rinsed in cold water, washed in warm soapy water then rinsed in clean fresh water. It may be necessary to use a brush to remove the marks of urinary deposits from the glass.
Coming to stools, after a specimen of faeces has been collected from a bedpan, it will be necessary to disinfect the remaining faeces ; if the patient is suffering from enteric fever, dysentery, food poisoning, poliomyelitis or tuberculosis of the alimentary tract or any other infection that may be transmitted to other people. Such faeces should be broken up in the bedpan and covered with disinfectant at the prescribed concentration. It should be left in contact with the disinfectant for the prescribed time, then sluiced away. The bedpans used for such patients should be sterilized after each use as described previously. Specimens of faeces sent to the bacteriological department for examination will be disinfected and disposed off in that department.
Specimens of faeces put up for inspection in the ward should be dealt with in the following ways :
1. If the faeces is infected, it should be disinfected ; then after the disposal of the faeces with the adherence of the prescribed time for it, the specimen container should be thoroughly cleaned by rinsing in cold water, washing in hot soapy water, then rinsing again in clean fresh water. It may be necessary to use a brush to remove remnants of faecal matter.
2. If the faeces are not infected, they should be sluiced away and the container cleaned as described above.
3. If a destructible container is used, the container with its contents should be incinerated or disposed off with the soiled dressings.
As a specimen of sputum is collected in a special container, the sputum and the container must be disinfected after the specimen has been inspected. The sputum in the container should be covered with approved disinfectant and left exposed for the prescribed time. After this, the sputum can be sluiced away. The container should be rinsed in cold water, washed with hot soapy water and rinsed again in clean fresh water.
A specimen of vomitus is usually put up for inspection in the container in which it was received. The vomitus will require special attention if the patient is suffering from enteric fever, dysentery, food poisoning or tuberculosis of the alimentary tract. It should be covered with the approved disinfectant and left exposed for the prescribed time. This will ensure that all micro-organisms are destroyed. If there is no indication that the vomitus is infected, it can be sluiced away without special treatment.
The sickness basin should be rinsed in cold water, washed in hot soapy water, you can as well use a brush if necessary, then rinsed in clean water. The nurse must see that it is thoroughly cleaned before it is put away.