How To Collect Faeces Specimen For Microbiological Examination.
A specimen should always be saved if there is any abnormality present; for example: blood, mucus, worms or gallstones. Routine specimens are required from patients suffering from diarrhoea, typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Specimens may be required for fat and starch estimation.
Method Of Collection
1. Screen the bed and explain the procedure to the patient. The patient should be instructed to pass stools only. A separate bedpan should be given if the patient wishes to pass urine.
2. Give a clean warm bedpan.
3. After the stool has been passed, the bedpan is removed and the toilet attended to with toilet paper which is placed in a separate receptacle after use. Example: Kidney dish.
4. The specimen is collected from the most solid portion of the stool and any abnormalities present should be included with it.
5. The whole of the faeces in the bedpan must be covered by a properly fitting lid or by a lavatory cloth wrung out in a strong antiseptic. This will prevent the entry of flies and combat any unpleasant odours. A paper bedpan cover does not fit closely enough for this purpose.
HOW AND METHODS TO COLLECT A SPECIMEN OF FAECES FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
When this request of collecting a faeces specimen for microbiological examination is made, it indicates that there is every possibility that pathogenic micro-organisms are present in the faeces. There are therefore two points of extreme importance which should be borne in mind by the nurse. They are:
1. The nurse must take every precaution to see that he or she is not infected.
2. The faeces must not be contaminated during the process of collection.
Method Of Collection
The nurse should prepare him or herself by putting On a gown and rubber gloves.
1. The patient is prepared.
2. The patient is instructed to pass stool only.
3. The area around the anus should be washed with soap and water.
4. The patient is given a bedpan which has been sterilized.
5. When the stool has been deposited, the bedpan is removed and the patient washed dried. The patient is left comfortable.
6. The nurse should wash his or her gloved hands very carefully then remove the gloves and gown. He or she should again wash her hands.
7. The specimen with the signed requisition form should be sent to the laboratory right away.
8. The specimen is placed in a correctly labelled container.
This may be:
a) a glass container with a little metal spoon attached to the cork. The spoon is used to take the specimen from the centre of the faecal mass in the bedpan and place it in the container.
b) a sterile destructible container; when this type is used, a sterile wooden spatula may be used to transfer the faeces from the bedpan to the container. The spatula is destroyed after use.