Introduction to geography

The word geography is coined from two greek words; Geo meaning the earth and Graph meaning to describe. So Geography can simply be defined as the description of the earth.

However, Geography is more than mere description of the earth.Hence,it is better defined as the study of people,their activities,places and physical things within the earth.

Geography deals with the study of different people in different locations of the earth including their activities like agriculture,mining,fishing,trading,manufacturing and construction.


Fishermen, Fishing, Sea, Asia, Vietnam
fishing photo credit pixabay
Countryside, Harvest, Agriculture, Farm
agriculture photo credit pixabay
Industry, Dumper, Minerals, Coal
mining photo credit pixabay


Holi, Girl, Indian, India, Dance, Fun
india photo credit pixabay
New York, City, Skyscraper
new york u.s.a photo credit pixabay

Geography also deals with the study of physical things within the earth such as rocks,mountains,rivers,oceans,plains,climate,vegetation,soil atmosphere.

Forest, Moss, Nature, Lush, Green
vegetation photo credit pixabay
Wanderer, Backpack, Hike, Away, Path
mountains photo credit pixabay


scope of Geography

Geography is a social science which deals with the study of man and his activities within his environment.In other words,geography ideas are real,practical and easy to understand because they are relevant to our everyday life experiences.

Geography touches many many other disciplines such as Agricultural science,Government,History,Economics,Biology,Chemistry,Physics etc. It is a discipline that cut across many other fields of human study.


Value Or Importance Of Geography 

Geography is very important because of the following reasons:

  1. To Study The Way Of Life Of Other People: It enables us to study the way of life of other people in other parts of the world. Without geography, it would have been difficult to know the existence and way of life of the Americans,British,Brazilians,Japanese,Africans etc.
  2. To Study The Physical Environment Around Us: It enables us to study the physical things around us such as vegetation,climate,mountains,oceans,rivers etc.
  3. To Know The Importance Of The Physical Features Around Us: It enables us to know the importance of the physical features around us and how they can be harnessed for human use.For example the climate of an area enables us to know the type of crops to grow,then vegetation as a physical feature provides timber for us,rivers help in transportation and other purposes like electricity generation and provision of fish for food etc.
  4. To Understand Other Areas Of Other Subjects: It enables us to understand other areas of other subjects like vegetation and soil in Agriculture,ecology and food chain in Biology,population,industries and trade in Economics etc.
  5. To Choose A Professional Career: It enables us to choose a career from which we can earn a living and contribute to the economic development of our country.Careers like Land Surveying,Urban And Regional Planning,Estate Management,Military Studies,Aviation,Architecture will not be possible to study in higher institutions of learning without the knowledge of geography in the sense that climatic condition of a geographical area,type of soil found  there etc determines the type and shape of the house or building to be built there.
  6. To Study The Social Environment Around Us: Geography helps us to study the social environment around us; such social environments are schools,churches,markets,mosque,temples etc.
  7. It Aids In Internal And External Trade: Geography has helped us to know the resources of other regions or countries,and this has assisted us to determine both internal and external trade.
  8. International Relationship: Geography in relations to other subjects like Government,commerce,economics has assisted many countries to have bilateral international relations with other countries of the world.


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