Analgesic-Types,Uses,Dosage,Risks And Precautions.
Analgesic is a drug which is used to relieve pain. There are many different kinds of pain medicine, many of which are dangerous especially those containing dipyrone such as novalgin.
Use those you are sure that are relatively safe like aspirin and acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen. For a stronger painkiller see codeine.
ASPIRIN (acetylsalicyclic acid)
This medicine often comes in 300 mg (5 grain) tablets. 75 mg (one and half grain) tablets for children (or child’s aspirin). Aspirin is a very useful, low-cost painkiller or analgesic. It helps to calm pain, lower fever and reduce inflammation. It also helps a little to calm cough and reduce itching.
Many different medicines sold for pain, arthritis or colds contain aspirin but they are more expensive and often do not do any more good than aspirin alone.
RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS OF ASPIRIN
- Do not use aspirin for stomach pain or indigestion. Aspirin is acid and may make the problem worse. For the same reason. Persons with stomach ulcers should never use aspirin.
- Aspirin causes stomach pain or heartburn in some persons. To avoid this, take aspirin with milk, a little bicarbonate of soda or a lot of water; or together with meals.
- Do not give more than 1 dose of aspirin to a dehydrated person until he or she begins to urinate well.
- It is better not to give aspirin to children under 12 years old and especially not to babies-acetaminophen (paracetamol) is safer- or to persons with asthma (this may bring on an attack).
- Keep aspirin where children cannot reach it. Large amount can poison them.
- Do not give to pregnant women.
DOSAGE OF ASPIRIN
For pain or fever, tablets of 300 mg (5 grains) is used. Take once every 4 to 6 hours (or 4 to 6 times a day) but do not give to children more than 4 times a day.
- Adults : 1 or 2 tablets (300 to 600 mg)
- Children between 8 to 12 years old : 1 tablet (300 mg)
- Children between 3 to 7 years old : half tablet (150 mg)
- Children between 1 to 2 years old : 1/4 quarter tablet (75 mg)
Dose may be doubled for severe menstrual pain. Severe arthritis or rheumatic fever. Or give 100 mg/kg/day if ringing of the ears develops. Lower the dose 75 mg for child’s aspirin tablet.
Give children aspirin 4 times a day.
- Children between 8 to 12 years old : 4 tablets (300 mg)
- Children between 3 to 7 years old : 2 to 3 tablets (150 to 225 mg)
- Children between 1 to 2 years old : 1 tablet (75 mg)
Do not give aspirin to children under 1 year old.
This medicine is used for pain and fever. It often comes in 500 mg tablets and also comes in syrups.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is safer for children than aspirin. It does not cause stomach irritation and so can be used instead of aspirin by persons with stomach ulcers. It can also be used by pregnant women.
DOSAGE OF ACETAMINOPHEN
For pain and fever, use 500 mg tablets. Give acetaminophen by mouth 4 times a day. In each dose, give :
- Adults : 500 mg to 1 gm (1 or 2 tablets)
- Children between 8 to 12 years old : 500 mg (1 tablet)
- Children between 3 to 7 years old : 250 mg (1/2 tablet)
- Children between 1 to 2 years old : 125 mg (1/4 tablet)
- Babies under 1 year old : 62 mg (1/8 tablet)
This medicine comes in 200 mg tablets. Ibuprofen works for muscle swelling and pain, joint pain from arthritis, menstrual pain, headache and to lower fever. It is more expensive than aspirin.
WARNING : Ibuprofen should not be taken by persons who are allergic to aspirin. Pregnant women should not use ibuprofen.
DOSAGE OF IBUPROFEN
For pain and fever, use 200 mg tablets. Give ibuprofen by mouth every 4 to 6 hours. In each dose give :
- Adults and children between 12 years old and older : 200 mg (1 tablet)
- Children under 12 years old : Do not give.
If one tablet does not relieve pain or fever, two tablets may be used. Do not take more than six tablets in 24 hours.
ERGOTAMINE WITH CAFFEINE (Cafergot)
This medicine is used for migraine headache. It often comes in tablets with 1 mg of ergotamine.
DOSAGE OF ERGOTAMINE WITH CAFFEINE FOR MIGRAINE
- Adults : Take 2 tablets at the first sign of a migraine, then 1 tablet every half hour until the pain goes. But do not take more than six tablets in all.
WARNING : Do not take this medicine often and also make sure that you do not take it when pregnant.
Codeine : This medicine is taken when you have severe pain.